General information: First Jewish presence: 1253; peak Jewish population: 180 in 1885 and 1886; Jewish population in 1933: 163
Summary: The first Jewish community of Oehringen maintained a synagogue and a mikveh. This early community was persecuted in the Rindfleisch massacres of 1298, and although a new Jewish presence had been established in Oehringen by the mid-14th century, it was wiped out during the Black Death pogroms of 1348/49. The modern community was founded in 1889. Prior to 1889, when the synagogue on Untere Torstrasse was inaugurated, the community conducted services in a prayer room. The synagogue accommodated 60 men, 52 women, a mikveh and a schoolroom, the last of which was presided over by a teacher who also served as shochet and chazzan. In 1933, 30 children studied religion in Oehringen. Several Jewish associations were active in the town. The synagogue’s interior was demolished on Pogrom Night; Jewish men were sent to Dachau, where one died. In 1939, the once-thriving community was disbanded. Later, in 1940, the cemetery—it had been consecrated in 1911—was cleared. Approximately 120 Jews emigrated, five died in Oehringen and 36 were deported to Eastern Europe. At least 46 Oehringen Jews died in the Shoah. In 1939, the synagogue was sold to the municipality. Although it was later converted into a residential building, plaques were unveiled there in 1988 and 1998. The cemetery was restored in 1945/46.
Author / Sources: Heike Zaun Goshen Sources: AH, AJ, EJL, PK BW
Located in: baden-wuerttemberg