General information: First Jewish presence: 13th century; peak Jewish population: 92 in 1890; Jewish population in 1933: 31
Summary: Ettenheim’s first Jewish community was destroyed in the Black Death pogroms of 1348/49. A new community was established there during the 1660s, and although a decree initially forbade Jews from building a synagogue, they were permitted to establish prayer rooms in private residences. They also built a mikveh, but townspeople destroyed it in 1778. The first reference to a synagogue is dated 1816, and we also know that a new house of worship was inaugurated on Alleestrasse in 1881. By the mid-1920s, as a result of Jewish emigration, the synagogue was no longer in use. In 1933, a teacher from Schmieheim instructed two children in religion. Later, on Pogrom Night (November 1938), the synagogue’s interior was destroyed and its contents burned; Jewish homes and businesses were heavily damaged during the pogrom. The synagogue was later sold to a tannery. Five surviving Torah scrolls were transferred to Freiburg in 1947. Although many Jews fled Ettenheim, seven actually moved there after 1933. In all, 25 local Jews emigrated, 12 relocated within Germany and three died in Ettenheim. On October 22, 1940, the town’s last Jewish family was deported to Gurs. At least four Ettenheim Jews perished in the Shoah. A plaque was unveiled at the town hall in 1969.
Photo: The synagogue of Ettenheim. Courtesy of: Town Archive of Ettenheim.
Author / Sources: Heike Zaun Goshen
Sources: AJ, EJL, PK-BW, SG-BW
Located in: baden-wuerttemberg