General information: First Jewish presence: 17th century; peak Jewish population: 225 in 1867 (42% of the total population); Jewish population in 1933: 70
Summary: Theilheim’s first synagogue was built in 1751. The community maintained a mikveh, a community center and a Jewish school, the last of which was housed in the community center and presided over by a teacher who also performed the duties of chazzan and shochet. In 1851, a new synagogue was built at 21-23 von Erthal-Strasse. Burials were conducted in Schwanfeld. Twelve local Jewish children studied religion in 1933; a chevra kadisha and a women’s association were active in the village that year. In 1938, the Jewish school became an elementary school for Jewish pupils who had been expelled from German schools. On Pogrom Night, the synagogue was set on fire: the building survived the blaze, but its furniture, Torah scrolls, and ritual objects were burned. Jewish homes were ransacked, the community center was wrecked and two Theilheim Jews were imprisoned in Schweinfurt. Thirty-one Theilheim Jews emigrated (24 went to the United States), two relocated within Germany and one committed suicide. In April 1942, 31 were deported, via Wuerzburg, to Izbica; nine others were deported to Theresienstadt, also via Wuerzburg, in September 1942. One Jew still lived in Theilheim in 1942, but his fate is unknown. At least 64 Theilheim Jews perished in the Shoah. The former synagogue, which was sold after the war and used as a warehouse, has been renovated in the early 21st century. A memorial plaque has been affixed to the building.
Author / Sources: Nurit Borut
Sources: AJ, EJL, PK BAV
Located in: bavaria